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Cancer Genomics

Gastrointestinal Infection

Understanding your Gut concerns through advanced testing

Each year, 60 to 70 million Americans are affected with digestive diseases and approximately 21 million people end up in hospitals due to gastrointestinal infections.

What are gastrointestinal infections?

Gastrointestinal infections (GI) are bowel infections, associated with the digestive tract; the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. The infection is caused due to viruses like Adenovirus, bacteria like Salmonella enterica, and parasites like Blastocystis leading to serious gastrointestinal infections.

Tests Include

Screens for a total of 30 microbial species and pathogens that disrupt the intestinal tract, including:


  • Aeromonas hydrophilia
  • Campylobacter coli
  • Campylobacter jejuni
  • Campylobacter upsaliensis
  • Clostridioides difficile-Toxins AB
  • Clostridioides difficile-Toxin B
  • Clostridioides difficile-Toxin A
  • E.coli EAEC
  • E.coli EIEC
  • E.coli EPEC
  • E.coli ETEC
  • E.coli O157
  • E.coli STEC
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Listeria monocytogenes
  • Plesiomonas shigelloides
  • Vibrio cholerae
  • Vibrio parahaemolyticus
  • Vibrio vulnificus
  • Shigella spp.
  • Salmonella spp.
  • Yersenia enterocoltica

Antibiotic-Resistant Genes

  • Aminoglycoside (aph(3)-VI,aph(3)-VIa,aph(3)-Vib, aac(6)-lb, aac(6)-ib11)
  • Aminoglycoside/Quinolone (aac(6)-ib-cr)
  • Beta Lactamase (blaSHV, blaTEM, blaOKP, blaOHIO)
  • Carbapenem (blaOXA)
  • Carbapenem (blaIMP)
  • Carbapenem (blaNDM, blaVIM, blaAFM)
  • Carbapenem (blaKPC)
  • Cephamycin (blaCMY, blaLAT)
  • Minor-ESBL (blaGES, blaVEB, blaPER)
  • Ampicillin/Cephalosporin (blaACT, blaMIR, blaMOX, blaCMY)
  • Ampicillin/Cephalosporin (blaFOX, blaDHA, blaACC)
  • Colistin (mcr-1, mcr-2)
  • ESBL (blaCTX-M)
  • Vancomycin (VanA, VanB, VanC)
  • Vancomycin (VanC, VanC, VanZ)
  • Macrolide (ere(B), mef(A))
  • Macrolide (erm(A), erm(B), erm(C))
  • Methicillin (mecA, mecC)
  • Nitroimidazole (nimA, nimB, nimC)
  • Nitroimidazole (nimD, nimE, nimI)
  • Nitroimidazole (nimJ, nimF, nimH)
  • OXA Carbapenem
  • Quinolone (qrnA, qnrS)
  • Sulfonamide (sul1, sul2)
  • Tetracycline (tetM, tetB, tetS)
  • Trimethoprim (dfrA1, dfrA5)
  • Linezolid/Macrolide (cfr)


  • Blastocystis hominis
  • Cryptosporidium spp.
  • Cyclospora cayetanensis
  • Dientamoeba fragilis
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • Giardia lamblia


  • Adenovirus
  • Astrovirus
  • Enterovirus
  • Norovirus GI-1
  • Norovirus GI-2
  • Norovirus GI-3
  • Norovirus GII
  • Rotavirus A
  • Rotavirus B
  • Rotavirus C
  • Sapovirus I II IV
  • Sapovirus V

Can gastrointestinal infections be contagious?


Yes, gastrointestinal infections are contagious. One can also get a bowel infection by consuming contaminated food and water, or by having contact with other people suffering from the disease.

Why are gastrointestinal infections difficult to detect?


The detection of gastrointestinal infection is a complex process due to its multifactorial origin (viruses, bacteria, and parasites). Although the common symptoms might go away in a few cases, detecting their root cause (agents) is essential for treatment as medication for each type of infection is different.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), diarrhea is a global killer, it kills more than AIDS, malaria, and measles combined 3

When to get tested?


The common symptoms associated with GI infections are nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fever. However, one should see a doctor and get tested if the above-listed symptoms are severe followed by experiencing:

  • Diarrhea that has lasted for 2 days
  • Dehydration
  • Blood or mucus in stools
  • Heartburn and sepsis
  • Muscle ache
  • Gas and bloating
  • Unintentional weight loss

Who needs to get tested?


  • If the person’s illness is complicated with severe symptoms, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance, and/or other complications
  • If a person traveling outside the U.S., especially to emerging nations
  • If a person has consumed anything prepared by their close ones who are affected by GI infection.
  • Small babies and the elderly; especially those having compromised immune systems

What tests does my doctor need to order?


The doctor will recommend either traditional tests or advanced testing approaches to detect gastrointestinal infection

  • Stool culture – A stool culture test detects the presence of pathogens that could help in diagnosing gastrointestinal infections.
  • Advanced testing through GI infectious panel – GI infectious panel includes the isolation of genetic material (DNA) from stool samples. Followed by DNA extraction and PCR analysis, this advanced test accurately analyzes the related pathogen/s causing the infection.

The good news is MicroGen Health offers both traditional and advanced testing approaches to detect gastrointestinal infections.

What advantage does MicroGen Health GI infectious panel have over traditional testing?


  • GI infectious panel is a simple and reliable option for detecting multi-origin infections
  • Efficient identification of pathogens that are either low in number or can not be cultured (viruses and parasitic infections) through traditional testing
  • Results are out in 24 hours rather than days
  • PCR-based methods can successfully detect co-infections unlike traditional approaches
  • Cost-effective

Specimen Requirements

Usually, stool swab samples are required for detecting gastrointestinal infections. For infants, a rectum swab is preferred.

How does MicroGen Health offer a better investigation?

  • MicroGen Health offers a comprehensive approach to GI infection testing through traditional and advanced investigations.
  • We conduct investigations to catch hold of drug-resistant pathogens that could assist in better treatment
  • Antibiotic-resistant gene analysis increases safety and efficacy
  • We provide reports within 24 hours

MicroGen Health offers a “Home sample collection” facility.

  • Specimen requirements

    Stool swab, For infants a rectum swab

  • Turn around time:

    24 hours

MicroGen Health laboratories perform tests that identify the cause of GI infection for better treatment options in order to combat the spread of infection.


  • National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Opportunities and Challenges in Digestive Diseases Research: Recommendations of the National Commission on Digestive Diseases. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2009. NIH Publication 08–6514.
  • CDC/NCHS national hospital discharge survey: United States, 2010. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. External link. (PDF, 1,506 KB) * Accessed May 2, 2013.
  • Diarrhea; common illness, global killer, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.); 2012; URL
    • Specimen requirements

      Stool swab, For infants a rectum swab

    • Turn around time:

      24 hours