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Pharmacogenomics

Urinary Tract Infection

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection of one or more segments of the urinary tract. Two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder, and a urethra make up the urinary tract. The kidneys are bean-shaped organs located in the lower back, beneath the rib cage. They filter waste from the blood and create urine to expel waste and excess water from the body. Urine is transported from the kidneys to the bladder via the ureters (tubes).

The bladder is a hollow muscular organ that holds urine for a limited amount of time. As urine builds in the bladder, it expands, signalling to the body that it needs to alleviate the increasing pressure. A muscular valve (sphincter) at the bladder's opening relaxes, and the bladder contracts, sending urine down the urethra (a tube connecting the bladder to the outside surface of a person's skin) and out of the body.

Tests include.

Gram Negative

13 Tests
  • Acinetobacter baumannii
  • Enterobacter aerogenes
  • Enterobacter cloacae
  • Escherichia coli
  • Klebsiella oxytoca
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae
  • Providencia stuartii
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Citrobacter koseri
  • Serratia marcescens
  • Citrobacter amalonaticus
  • Pantoea agglomerans
  • Proteus mirabilis

Gram Positive

14 Tests
  • Enterococcus faecalis
  • Enterococcus faecium
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Staphylococcus saprophyticus
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Staphylococcus lugdunenesis
  • Staphylococcus haemolyticus
  • Streptococcus oralis
  • Aerococcus urinae
  • Corynebacterium riegelii
  • Corynebacterium urealyticum
  • Streptococcus pasteuranus
  • Streptococcus pyogenes
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis

STD

5 Tests
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Treponema pallidum
  • Mycoplasma genitalium
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Fungal

3 Tests
  • Candida Albicans
  • Candida Glabrata
  • Candida parapsilosis

Bacteria

3 Tests
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Mycoplasma hominis
  • Ureaplasma urealyticum

Antibiotic Resistance

15 Tests
  • ACT/MIR
  • vanA
  • vanB
  • vanC
  • KPC
  • TEM
  • ermB
  • ermC
  • ermA
  • qnrS
  • gyrA
  • mecA
  • tetM
  • sul1
  • dfra

Who is this test for

When you experience symptoms such as abdominal pain, pain in your back, frequent or painful urination, or a pre-surgical workup, occasionally as part of the health check-up.

Test Limitations

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  • Specimen requirements

    Urine

  • Turn around time:

    48 - 72 hours

  • CPT Codes:

    87481, 87640, 87653, 87798

    NOTE: The CPT codes listed on the website are in accordance with Current Procedural Terminology, a publication of the American Medical Association. CPT codes are provided here for the convenience of our clients. Clients who bill for services should make the final decision on which codes to use.

  • Coverage:

    99.0% of targeted genomic regions at 20X coverage or higher

Resources/References

Beckmann, B.M., Pfeufer, A., & Kääb, S. Inherited cardiac arrhythmias: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2011 Sep;108(37):623-33 (2011) Kimura, A. Molecular genetics and pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy. J Hum Genet. Jan;61(1):41-50 (2016)